An offside position is gained when a player is ahead of the ball and closer to the opponents goal, while the opponents end of the pitch, than the opponents keeper and one other defender. However, this only results in a call of "offside" if the player is in the area of or involved in active play.
Advantage is called when the team which appeared to have been fouled remains in possession of the ball and on the attack, thus allowing any offensive opportunity gained to continue rather than penalize said team for the action of the opponent.
A call of dangerous play is made when any player is put into a situation where the act of conducting play is consider by the referee to place any player in a position to cause injury to themselves or any other players.
A player may be outside the marked pitch and play the ball so long as the ball remains within the marked boundaries of the pitch. The ball is not consider out of play until completely over the marked boundary of the pitch, whether on the ground or in the air.
The call of handling occurs when, in the opinion of the referee, they view any play, including the keeper in certain instances, deliberately handle, carry, strike, or propel the ball with their hand or arm. In most instances the referee may also look to see if, in their opinion, the hand went to the ball or the ball went to the hand, or if an advantage was gained, before making any call.